A genealogist's guide to Latin in family history records
3-4 minute read
By The Findmypast team
You'll likely encounter Latin as you uncover the incredible stories in your family history. Our handy guide will help you decipher key phrases from Latin to English, so your family tree can continue to bloom.
If you’re Catholic or you have potential Catholic ancestors, keep reading. After all, Latin isn’t dead. It’s just Roman around.
And don’t worry, we won’t be asking you to conjugate a verb.
What is Latin?
Latin is what’s known as a ‘dead language’, originally spoken in the area around present-day Rome, Italy. The expansion of the Roman Republic and the subsequent Empire made Latin the dominant language in its territories.
Even after the collapse of the Roman Empire, Latin continued as the language of academia, communication, science, and scholarship in Europe for many centuries. It also influenced several other languages, notably the romance languages of Italian and French, and even English to some extent.
Latin is still used today, despite having no native speakers. Most commonly, it’s still used by the Catholic Church. It’s also used for mottos, on coins, in films, and is still taught in some schools and universities.
In nomini patri, et fili...
So, why do you need to know what Caecilius est in horto means (or perhaps not that exact phrase) when researching your ancestors?
Caecilius is in the garden, tending to his family tree, of course.
It all comes down to religious records, specifically Catholic records.
If your ancestors were Catholic, this becomes even more important. The majority of Catholic records are recorded in, or partially recorded in, Latin. Up until the 1960s, the official language of the Catholic church was Latin.
Stella, stella, stellam
Not all of us were stars at Latin in school. See what we did there?
- A me Infrascripto Parocho vel Vicario: I the undersigned pastor or vicar
- Anno Domini: year of Our Lord
- Baptizandi Nomen: baptised with the name
- Cognomen: last name
- Denuntiationes: denunciations (refers to if there are any impediments to a marriage)
- Die: day
- Domicilium: residence
- Ex parentibus legitimo Matrimonio junctis: from the parents of a legitimate marriage
- Filium legitimum: legitimate son (or child)
- Habitantibus in: living in
- Impedimentum: hindrance or impediment to the marriage; such as a blood relation
- Matrina fuit: godmother
- Mensis: month
- Natus: birth
- Nomina imposita in confirmation: a saint chosen when a young person was confirmed
- Nomina Parentum: name of parents
- Patrinus fuit: godfather
- Observanda: observations or notes
- Olim: once, normally referring to a mother’s maiden name
- Sepultus: buried
- Sponsoribus: sponsors
- Testes adfuerunt: witnesses present
The Catholic records on Findmypast include baptisms, marriages, burials and congregational records such as confirmations.
Some Latin names in English
Search tip: sometimes names were recorded in their Latin spellings, instead of their English spellings. For example, you might see Willelmus listed instead of William, or Patrick as Patricus.
Check the variant spelling box as well as making use of our wildcard feature. It will reveal different spelling possibilities for you to find your Catholic ancestors.
Have you made a discovery in the Catholic Heritage Archive that has shaped your family story? We'd love to hear all about it. Reach out to us on social media using #WhereWillYourPastTakeYou?
Other articles recommended for you
Here's how to research the double-barrelled surnames in your family tree
15 top tips for searching Findmypast's British & Irish newspaper archive
Unleashing the power of ChatGPT in family history research
From first cousins to second cousins once removed: your family relationships defined and explained